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Scientific/Education Planning Committee

Carlos Pino, MD, 2015 Meeting Chair
Ricardo Vallejo, MD, PhD (2016 Meeting Chair)
Kevin Vorenkamp, MD (2017 Meeting Chair)
Magdalena Anitescu, MD, PhD
Juan-Francisco Asenjo, MD, 
Jennifer Bunch, MD

Bridget Calhoun, Dr PH
Oscar de Leon-Casasola, MD (ex-officio, President)
Giovanna De Oliveira, PhD, NP-C, RN  
Terese Horlocker, MD (ex-officio, CME Chair)
Marc Huntoon, MD (ex-officio, Editor-in-Chief)
David Provenzano, MD
Ellen W. K. Rosenquist, MD
Daniel Warren, MD (ex-officio, CME Co-Chair)


Kevin Abrams, MD
Juan-Francisco Asenjo, MD
Honorio Benzon, MD
Charles Berde, MD, PhD
Andreas Beutler, MD
Gary Brenner, MD, PhD
Jennifer Bunch, MD
Asokumar Buvanendran, MD
Bridget Calhoun, Dr PH
Arnold I. Caplan, PhD
John Carrino, MD
Peter Cheng, DO
David Clark, MD, PhD
Steven P. Cohen, MD
Daniel Cole, MD
Jose De Andrés, MD, PhD, FIPP, EDRA
Oscar de Leon-Casasola, MD
Giovanna De Oliveira, PhD, NP-C, RN
Timothy Deer, MD
James Eisenach, MD
Roderick Finlayson, MD
Robert Foreman, PhD
Christopher Gilligan, MD
Michael Gofeld, MD
Amitabh Gulati, MD
Salim Hayek, MD, PhD
Marc Huntoon, MD
Robert Jamison, PhD
Leonardo Kapural, MD, PhD
Imanuel Lerman, MD
Timothy Lubenow, MD
Sean Mackey, MD, PhD
Edward Mariano, MD, MAS
Nagy Mekhail, MD, PhD
Samer Narouze, MD, PhD
Joseph M. Neal, MD
Andrea Nicol, MD, MS
Evan Peck, MD
Philip Peng, MBBS
Anahi Perlas, MD, FRCPC
Carlos Pino, MD
Jason Pope, MD
David Provenzano, MD
Maunak Rana, MD
James Rathmell, MD
Ellen W.K. Rosenquist, MD
Richard Rosenquist, MD
John Rowlingson, MD
Constantine Sarantopoulos, MD, PhD
Hariharan Shankar, MBBS
Sanford Silverman, MD
Eliezer Soto, MD
Dmitri Souzdalnitski, MD, PhD
Brett Stacey, MD
Santhanam Suresh, MD
Ennio Tasciotti, PhD
Ricardo Vallejo, MD, PhD
Kevin Vincent, MD, PhD, FACSM, CAQSM
Eugene Viscusi, MD
Kevin Vorenkamp, MD
Brian Wainger, MD, PhD
Mark Wallace, MD
Daniel Warren, MD
Joshua Wellington, MD
Jijun Xu, MD, PhD
Tony Yaksh, PhD
Jason Zaremski, MD

Associate Faculty

Magdalena Anitescu, MD, PhD
Esther M. Benedetti, MD, FIPP
Anuj Bhatia, MD, FRCA
Sean Colio, MD
Maxim Eckmann, MD
John Hanlon, MD, MSc, FRCPC
Wyndam Strodtbeck, MD
Bruce Vrooman, MD, MS

ASRA Administration

Angie Stengel, MS, CAE; Executive Director
Julie Simper, CHCP, CMP; Director of CME and Meetings
Tracey Escamilla; Manager of Operations
Anne Snively, MBA, CAE; Manager of Communications
Diane McGuire; Manager of Membership
Elizabeth Smith; Administrative Assistant

Click on name for bio; use back button for full list.

Kevin Abrams, MD, is a partner with Radiology Associates of South Florida and has been an attending radiologist at the Baptist Hospital of Miami, South Miami Hospital, Homestead Hospital, Doctors Hospital, Baptist West Kendall Hospital, and the Baptist Outpatient Centers. He serves as the Medical Director of Neuroradiology and MRI as well as the Chief of Radiology at Baptist Hospital. Dr. Abrams is one of the founding members of the Baptist Neuroscience Center. Dr. Abrams holds academic appointments at University of Miami as a Voluntary Associate Clinical Professor of Radiology as well as at the Herbert Wertheim School of Medicine at Florida International University as Clinical Associate Professor of Radiology. [back to top]

Magdalena Anitescu, MD, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Program Director for the Multidisciplinary Pain Medicine fellowship, and Section Chief of the Pain Management Service at the University of Chicago Medicine. An accomplished national and international educator and author of numerous textbook chapters and scientific papers, Dr. Anitescu focuses her research on improving the quality of life of patients with acute, chronic, and cancer pain by multimodal, multifaceted variate interventions. [back to top]

Juan Francisco Asenjo, MD, is a Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Management at McGill University in Montreal and former Director of the Department of Anesthesia and Acute Pain Services at the Montreal General Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Dr. Asenjo is interested in all aspects of pain relief as a component of the global people's well being as a mean to recover their joie de vivre. He participated in developing the interdisciplinary McGill Cancer Pain Clinic and the Acute Pain Services at McGill University, as well as the Interventional Pain Program. Nowadays, he works in cancer and noncancer pain management and anesthesia where he codirects the Regional Anesthesia and Spine Perioperative Fellowships. Dr Asenjo collaborates with the scientist at the Alan Edwards McGill Center for Research in Pain in basic and clinical research in the field, and he recently received the Award as Medical Expert from the Residents in Anesthesia at McGill. [back to top]

Esther M. Benedetti, MD, FIPP, obtained her medical degree at the Escuela de Medicina Jose Maria Vargas and her anesthesia training at the Hospital Domingo Luciani (Universidad Central de Venezuela) in Caracas, Venezuela. In 2003, she acquired her Pain Medicine fellowship training at the University of Vermont. She returned to Venezuela where she worked as a chronic pain specialist at the Instituto de Clínicas y Urología Tamanaco and the Centro Medico Docente La Trinidad. She holds certification by the World Institute of Pain as a Fellow of Interventional Pain Practice. In 2007, she emigrated to the United States to work at the University of Iowa where she currently serves as an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Anesthesia’s Center for Pain Management. [back to top]

Honorio Benzon, MD, is a Professor of Anesthesiology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois. He graduated from the Far Eastern University in Manila, Philippines, and took his residency at the University of Cincinnati and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. He trained in neurophysiology at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital. He has written 70 articles, 98 book chapters, and presented 95 abstracts. He is the editor of three books, Deputy Editor-in-Chief of Pain Practice, editor of Anesthesia and Analgesia, and associate editor of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. He is a member of Alpha Omega Alpha at Northwestern. [back to top]

Charles Berde, MD, PhD, is the Sara Page Mayo Chair and Chief of the Division of Pain Medicine at Boston Children's Hospital and Professor of Anaesthesia (Pediatrics) at Harvard Medical School.  He co-founded and continues to direct the most active pediatric pain program in the world.   Dr. Berde directs clinical and translational research on local anesthetics, pediatric analgesic pharmacology, and pediatric chronic pain outcomes. [back to top]

Andreas Beutler, MD, is a Consultant in the Departments of Anesthesiology and Oncology at Mayo Clinic, where he leads an NIH-funded research program on new pain treatments targeting dorsal root ganglia with adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy. His laboratory also tests spinal delivery of resiniferatoxin for severe pain in pre-clinical models. A recent focus of the Beutler-laboratory is CT-fluoroscopy guided delivery of these novel analgesics. Dr. Beutler is also a board certified clinical oncologist with a special interest in chemotherapy neuropathy and chronic cancer pain. [back to top]

Anuj Bhatia, MD, FRCA, is an Assistant Professor in Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management at University of Toronto and Director, Anesthesia Chronic Pain Clinical Services at University Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital, and Women’s College Hospital, Toronto. His clinical interests include ultrasound-guided procedures for regional anesthesia and chronic pain. His current work interests include pharmacological and image-guided interventional treatments for musculoskeletal, neuropathic, and cancer-related pain. [back to top]

Gary Brenner, MD, PhD, currently sees patients at the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Pain Medicine, has been the Director of the MGH Pain Medicine Fellowship since 2002, and runs an NIH-funded lab. He is an Associate Professor in Anesthesia at Harvard Medical School and has authored more than 45 publications including peer-review articles, reviews, and book chapters; these have focused on the pathophysiology of pain, neurofibromatosis, neuroimmunology, and clinical approaches to chronic pain. His NIH-funded laboratory is focused on the development of novel treatments for schwanna. [back to top]

Jennifer Bunch, MD, is Chair of ASRA's Resident and Fellow Section and currently a chronic pain medicine fellow at Stanford. [back to top]




Asokumar Buvanendran, MD, is an anesthesiologist specializing in Pain Medicine, and his academic activities are divided between research, teaching and clinical duties in the Rush University Department of Anesthesia (Chicago, IL USA), and national advocacy for the advancement of pain care. He brings a unique perspective of a very busy clinical practice of acute and chronic interventional pain medicine with research. He is involved in various clinical and basic research in the field of acute and chronic pain. At leisure time, enjoys playing tennis. [back to top]

Bridget Calhoun, Dr PH, has been a physician assistant for 23 years and is currently the Chairman of the PA program at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, PA. She earned a doctoral degree in public health in infectious diseases and microbiology and works clinicially in HIV/AIDS research at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. This is the second year Dr Calhoun has been involved in planning the sessions for mid-level providers during the Fall ASRA meeting. [back to top]

Arnold I. Caplan, PhD, is a Professor of Biology and Director of the Skeletal Research Center at Case Western Reserve University. He received his PhD from The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr. Caplan is a national and international scholar focusing on experimentation in the area of musculoskeletal and skin development. He has published over 400 papers and manuscripts and has long been supported by the NIH and other nonprofit and for-profit agencies for his efforts in trying to understand the development, maturation, and aging of cartilage, bone, skin, and other mesenchymal tissues and for his pioneering research on mesenchymal stem cells. [back to top]

John Carrino, MD, is an author on numerous peer-reviewed scientific and review publications in a diversified compendium of domains. For the past 20 years, he has held a number of positions at several prestigious academic institutions including Harvard, Thomas Jefferson, and Johns Hopkins with a track record of breakthrough research, education innovation, and technology transfer to clinical practice. He currently is the Vice-Chairman of the Radiology and Imaging Department at the Hospital for Special Surgery and Professor of Radiology at Weill Cornell Medical College. [back to top]

Peter Cheng, DO, completed his anesthesia residency and cardiothoracic anesthesia fellowship at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, respectively. Dr. Cheng became fascinated with the many revolutionary applications of ultrasound (US) to perioperative medicine, especially regional anesthesia and pain medicine. Having studied with many luminaries, he became engaged in developing new US-guided techniques for regional anesthesia and pain medicine. As a pain medicine physician, he soon found US to be an invaluable and practical tool to complement the clinical examination for diagnosing diseases, especially of the musculoskeletal and peripheral neurological systems. Hence, he has dedicated much of his effort to studying and promoting diagnostic US. At this symposium, he plans to share his insight and experience with US: diagnostic and interventional. [back to top]

David Clark, MD, PhD, is a pain management clinician and investigator at Stanford University and the Palo Alto VA Healthcare System (VAPAHCS). He directs the VAPAHCS Multidisciplinary Pain Clinic and treats patients with a wide variety of chronic pain disorders. His research interests include the mechanisms underlying the maladaptive effects of opioids and the immunological basis of chronic pain. He applies these interests to models of postoperative pain, fracture, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Dr. Clark is also the Vice-Chair for research at Stanford. [back to top]

Steven P. Cohen, MD, obtained his medical degree at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, completed an anesthesiology residency at Columbia University, and a pain management fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School. He is Professor of Anesthesiology & Critical Care Medicine and Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. [back to top]

Daniel Cole, MD, currently serves as the President Elect of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and is professor of Clinical Anesthesiology and vice chair for Professional and Business Development at the Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles. A member of ASA since 1982, Dr. Cole has served the Society in numerous roles. Dr. Cole graduated from Loma Linda University School of Medicine. He completed his residency at the Loma Linda University School of Medicine and his fellowship in neuroanesthesia at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. Dr. Cole and his wife, Cristine, live in Santa Monica, CA. They have two sons, Stephen and Andrew, and their daughter-in-law, Elizabeth. [back to top]

Sean Colio, MD, is a board-certified sports medicine physician specializing in sports and musculoskeletal injuries and prevention. He is one of the first physicians in the United States to receive certification by the American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography in musculoskeletal sonography. Dr. Colio is one of the core faculty and the primary musculoskeletal ultrasonography instructors for the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Sports Fellowship at the Swedish Medical Center in Seattle, WA. He is an appointed Clinical Instructor for the University of Washington Department of Family and Sports Medicine. [back to top]

Jose De Andrés, MD, PhD, FIPP, EDRA, is a Professor of Anaesthesiology at the Valencia University School of Medicine and Chairman of the Anaesthesia, Critical Care, and Multidisciplinary Pain Management Departments in the Valencia University General Hospital. He is the president of the Board of Directors of the European Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Therapy (ESRA), editor of Pain Practice, and associate editor for Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, The Clinical Journal of Pain, and European Journal of Pain-Supplements. Dr. De Andres is an examiner for the European Diploma of Anaesthesia of the European Society of Anaesthesia. [back to top]

Oscar de Leon-Casasola, MD, is the Senior Vice-Chair and Professor of Anesthesiology (Tenure Track), Department of Anesthesiology, and Professor of Medicine at the University at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences in Buffalo, NY. He is also Chief of the Division of Pain Medicine and Professor of Oncology at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo. Dr. de Leon-Casasola was the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management from 2000 to 2011. He also served on the Editorial Board of Seminars in Pain Medicine, the Journal of the Spanish Society of Pain. [back to top]

Giovanna De Oliveira, PhD, NP-C, RN, earned her BSN and MSN at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. Mrs. De Oliveira has 10 years of clinical work experience in interventional pain management in Tamarac, FL. She was the lead nurse practitioner in her practice for several years, responsible for training other colleagues. As a nurse practitioner, she has also worked in other specialties such as primary care and mental health in Michigan and Texas. She is a member of the American Nurses Association, American Association of Nurse Practitioners, and Sigma Theta Tau, among other nursing organizations. Currently she is a PhD in nursing candidate at the University of Miami. Her dissertation is focused on analyzing the social determinants of major depressive disorder among Hispanic women. She had taught clinical nursing rotations and works as a research assistant for the university. In 2014, Mrs. De Oliveira was selected a fellow by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration Minority Fellowship Program, with the American Nurses Association. [back to top]

Timothy Deer, MD, is the President and CEO of The Center for Pain Relief, Inc. in Charleston, West Virginia. Dr. Deer is the current President of the International Modulation Society (INS) and President of the West Virginia Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (WVSIPP). He has published extensively on a wide range of topics including injection techniques, intrathecal drug delivery, and spinal cord and peripheral nerve stimulation, as well as served tirelessly on many editorial boards. [back to top]


Maxim Eckmann, MD, is Associate Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), where he completed his Pain Fellowship in 2008. In 2011 he assumed directorship of the long standing UTHSCSA Pain Medicine Fellowship Program while also serving as the clinical director of the entire departmental pain enterprise. As a full time academic physician, Dr. Eckmann practices actively in outpatient and hospital based interventional pain management, and has special interest in ultrasound, radiofrequency, and craniofacial blocks. [back to top]

James Eisenach, MD, is a clinician-scientist with focus on the study and treatment of acute and chronic pain. Following an obstetric anesthesia fellowship in 1985 he has been a faculty member at Wake Forest School of Medicine, where he is currently the FM James, III Professor of Anesthesia. He is the current Editor-in-Chief of Anesthesiology and former President of ASRA. [back to top]

Roderick Finlayson, MD, is an associate professor in the department of anesthesia at McGill University. He completed his anesthesia residency at McGill University in 1996, and a fellowship in pain management in 1997. He is based at the McGill University Health center, where he is the director of interventional pain management and medical director of the chronic pain network. He is very active in the field of ultrasound research, where his main area of interest is the development and validation of new block techniques. [back to top]

Robert Foreman, PhD,  is George Lynn Cross Research Professor in the Department of Physiology and Adjunct Professor in Anesthesiology at The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. He has published more than 200 articles in highly regarded, peer reviewed journals. Dr. Foreman is Past President of the North American Neuromodulation Society. He is Section Editor of Basic Science for Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface Journal. [back to top]


Christopher Gilligan, MD, serves as the Chief of the Division of Pain Medicine and Co-Director of the Spine Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. He is an Assistant Professor of Anesthesia at Harvard Medical School. His original training is in Emergency Medicine and he has subspecialty training in Pain Medicine, where he has focused on pain of spinal origin. Dr. Gilligan's clinical expertise is focused on the treatment of pain related to disorders of the spine. He also treats patients with a wide range of pain conditions, including cancer related pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and post-herpetic neuralgia. Dr. Gilligan's research focuses on clinical trials of new interventions, devices and medications for the treatment of pain. [back to top]

Michael Gofeld, MD, is Associate Professor at the University of Toronto, and Staff Physician in the Departments of Anesthesia at St. Michael's and Women's College Hospitals in Toronto. He is Chair of the Registry Committee for the Adult Chronic Pain Network MOHLTC, Section Editor of Current Headache and Pain Reports; Pain Practice, and Associate Editor of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. Dr. Gofeld has published 38 peer-review publications and 36 book chapters. He has also received grants totaling $753,000. Dr. Gofeld's research and clinical expertise focus on chronic pain outcomes, medical devises R&D, neuromodulation, musculoskeletal and neurological ultrasonography, radiofrequency, and advanced procedural imaging. [back to top]

Amitabh Gulati, MD, is an anesthesiologist and pain medicine physician practicing in New York City.  He is assistant professor and Director of Chronic Pain, specializing in interventional cancer pain management, at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.  He received his medical degree from Baylor College of Medicine, completed his anesthesiology residency at Emory University School of Medicine, and obtained his pain management fellowship diploma from Weill Cornell School of Medicine in 2007.  Dr. Gulati completed his acupuncture certification at the Helms Medical Institute in 2007, and is licensed to practice in the state of New York. He is currently the program director of the Weill Cornell pain management fellowship in New York City.  [back to top]

John Hanlon, MD, MSc, FRCPC, is the Program Director of the University of Toronto Pain Medicine Residency. He is an Assistant Professor in the University of Toronto Department of Anesthesia and the Co-Director of the St Michaels Hospital Chronic Pain Service.

Dr. Hanlon is the Canadian Section Chair of the World Academy of Pain Medicine Ultrasonographers (WAPMU) and the Deputy Chair of the Chronic Pain Section of the Canadian Anesthesia Society (CAS). [back to top]

Salim Hayek, MD, PhD, is currently the chief of the Division of Pain Medicine at University Hospitals and Professor in the Department of Anesthesiology at Case Western Reserve University. He is well published and serves on the editorial board of most pain journals. Dr. Hayek has had a number of service accomplishments at the local and national levels including being a member of the Board of Directors, North American Neuromodulation Society and a member, Council of Pain Physician Societies (CPPS). [back to top]

Terese Horlocker, MD, is a Professor of Anesthesiology and Orthopedics at Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and a Section Editor for Regional Anesthesia and Pain and Anesthesia & Analgesia. She currently serves as the chair of ASRA's CME Committee. She received the Gaston Labat Award in 2011 and the Distinguished Service Award in 2009. She also served as president of ASRA from 2003-2005. [back to top]

Marc Huntoon, MD, is Editor-In-Chief of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. He currently is a Professor of Anesthesiology and Chief of the Division of Pain Medicine at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, TN. [back to top]




Robert Jamison, PhD, is a Professor at Harvard Medical School in the Departments of Anesthesia, Psychiatry, and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and has over thirty year’s experience working with persons with chronic pain. Dr. Jamison is the Chief Psychologist at the Pain Management Center at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Dr. Jamison has received numerous grants from the NIH and has authored 2 books and over 250 peer-reviewed articles and chapters in the area of behavioral medicine and chronic pain. He is active in many professional organizations and has been the invited speaker at many national and international conferences. [back to top]

Leonardo Kapural, MD, PhD, is Professor of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest Univ, Sch of Medicine and Carolinas Pain Institute. Dr. Kapural’s interests include spinal cord stimulation and visceral abdominal pain. Dr. Kapural’s experience is broad and encompasses teaching and clinical education, extensive research, and innovations in the area of pain treatments which brought him two Innovator Awards. His noteworthy research findings have been published in more than 100 journal articles, 100 abstracts, two books and 20 book chapters. He is listed by his peers in the "Best Doctors of America." [back to top]

Imanuel Lerman, MD, MS, is an Assistant Professor at the University of California San Diego, School of Medicine (UCSD) within department of Anesthesiology. He currently directs the Interventional Ultrasound Division at the Center for Pain Medicine at UCSD while also teaching advanced ultrasound techniques to fellows, residents and medical students. Dr. Lerman's research lab explores the mechanisms and efficacy of advanced neuromodulation techniques on pain, headache, stress and mental health disorders. [back to top]

Timothy Lubenow, MD, is a Professor of Anesthesiology, the reciepient of Thomas Ben Jennings Endowed Chair in Interventional Pain Medicine and Anesthesiology at RUMC. He has many awards including: Castle Connolly Guide to “Top Doctors in the Nation” New York Times , 2010; 70 of the Best Pain Management Physicians in America Beckers ASC Review 2011; U.S. News Top Doctors, selected by U.S. News Media Group 2011; Patients’ Choice Award” by PatientsChoice.org. 2012; Distinguished Service Award Illinois Society of Anesthesiologists 2013; Selected Chicago Super Doctors 2013,Chicago Top Doctors 2014. [back to top]

Sean Mackey, MD, PhD, is Chief of the Division of Pain Medicine and Redlich Professor of Anesthesiology, Neurosciences and Neurology at Stanford University. He is the Immediate Past President of the American Academy of Pain Medicine. Dr. Mackey received his BSE and MSE in Bioengineering from University of Pennsylvania and his PhD in Electrical and Computer Engineering as well as MD from University of Arizona. Dr. Mackey is author of over 200 journal articles, book chapters, abstracts, and popular press pieces in addition to numerous national and international lectures. [back to top]

Edward Mariano, MD, MAS, graduated from Georgetown University School of Medicine,  completed his anesthesiology residency at Stanford University Medical Center, and completed his pediatric anesthesiology fellowship at Stanford University Medical Center/Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital with emphasis on clinical investigation and regional anesthesiology and acute pain medicine for children. He joined the Department of Anesthesiology at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), in 2004, where he started UCSD’s training program in Regional Anesthesiology and served as Division Chief of Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Medicine until 2010. He is currently an Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine with a Masters of Advanced Studies Degree in Clinical Research. He is board-certified in anesthesiology and pediatric anesthesiology and currently serves as Chief of the Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care Service, Associate Chief of Staff for Inpatient Surgical Services at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, and Co-Director of the Stanford Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Fellowship Program. He has served on various committees of ASRA including Chair of the 38th Annual Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting Scientific/Education Planning Committee and Editor of ASRA News. [back to top]

Colin McCartney, MBChB, PhD, is Professor and Chair of Anesthesiology at University of Ottawa and Head of Anesthesiology at The Ottawa Hospital. He completed anaesthesia and pain medicine training in Scotland before completing a regional anaesthesia and pain fellowship in Toronto in 2000. From 2000-2014 he was a faculty member at University of Toronto and staff anesthesiologist at Toronto Western Hospital and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. He has published over 80 articles in peer-reviewed journals in relation to regional anaesthesia and pain medicine and is an Editor of the journal Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and Associate Editor of the British Journal of Anaesthesia and BMC Anesthesiology. In 2014 he completed a PhD at University of Edinburgh on evolution and impact of ultrasound guidance on brachial plexus anaesthesia. In his spare time he enjoys beer, company of good friends and sleep. [back to top]

Nagy Mekhail, MD, PhD, is Director of the Evidence Based Pain Medicine Research and Education at the Cleveland Clinic. A prolific author, Dr. Mekhail has published more than 92 original articles and abstracts. In addition, he has instructed at more than 140 CME lectures and 60 lectures as a visiting professor. He is an member of several professional organizations and is on the Board of Directors of the World Institute of Pain and an active member of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Research Committee. He currently serves as an Associate Editor for Pain Practice Journal, and Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management. [back to top]

Samer Narouze, MD, PhD, is Clinical Professor of Anesthesiology and Neurological Surgery at Ohio University and Ohio State University OSU. He is board certified in Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine, as well as Neurology Headache Medicine. He is the chairman of the Center for Pain Medicine at Western Reserve Hospital in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. Dr. Narouze is on the board of directors for the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA). He recently founded the American Interventional Headache Society (AIHS) and he serves in many committees for national and international headache and pain organizations. He has published about 200 research papers, review articles, book chapters, and abstracts. He frequently speaks and serves as a visiting professor both nationally and internationally. [back to top]

Joseph M. Neal, MD, received his undergraduate and medical training at Wake Forest University and the West Virginia University School of Medicine. He returned to Bowman Gray / Wake Forest University to complete residencies in Emergency Medicine and Anesthesiology. After fellowship training in regional anesthesia at the Virginia Mason Medical Center in Seattle, he joined that group in 1989. He directed the Virginia Mason regional anesthesia fellowship for over a decade as well as their anesthesiology residency program. Dr. Neal is a senior examiner for the American Board of Anesthesiology; was Editor-in-Chief of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (2002-2012), and is co-author of the textbooks Requisites in Anesthesiology: Regional Anesthesia; Complications in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine; and Regional Anesthesia: An Illustrated Procedural Guide. He was the President of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (2012-2015). [back to top]

Andrea Nicol, MD, MS, completed her residency in anesthesiology at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), then trained in pain medicine at the same institution. Concurrently with fellowship training, Dr. Nicol conferred a Master’s in Science in Clinical Research through the UCLA Department of Biomathematics. Currently, she is an Assistant Professor at the University of Kansas School of Medicine where her clinical responsibilities include chronic pain and her research interests include fibromyalgia, centralized pain syndromes, and mechanisms of the chronification of pain. [back to top]

Evan Peck, MD, is a sports medicine physician in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Cleveland Clinic Florida. He completed his medical degree at the University of Virginia, residency training at Baylor College of Medicine, and sports medicine fellowship training at the Mayo Clinic. He is board-certified in both sports medicine and physical medicine and rehabilitation, and also holds the Registered in Musculoskeletal Sonography credential. He is affiliate faculty at both Florida Atlantic University and Ross University and provides medical coverage for USA Weightlifting. His clinical and research interests include concussion, tendinopathy, and diagnostic and interventional sports ultrasound. [back to top]

Philip Peng, MBBS, is a professor in the Department of Anesthesia of University of Toronto. He is the director of the anesthesia chronic pain program of University Health Network, the largest teaching hospital of Canada. He has played an important role in the education of the pain medicine and established major teaching courses for Pain in Canada. Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) honored him with Founder designation in Pain Medicine for his role in establishing Pain Medicine subspecialty in Canada. [back to top]

Anahi Perlas, MD, FRCPC, completed anesthesia and regional anesthesia training at the University of Toronto. She is currently Associate Professor at the Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto and holds a clinical appointment at the Toronto Western Hospital where she is Director of the Clinical Regional Anesthesia Program. Her research interests relate to innovative applications of ultrasound in the perioperative period with a special focus on regional anesthesia applications and evaluation of gastric content for aspiration risk assessment. She has obtained several peer-reviewed grants and has published more than 40 peer-reviewed articles, several book chapters and editorials. She is Associate Editor of the journal Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and guest editor of several other peer-reviewed journals. [back to top]

Carlos Pino, MD, is the Chair of the Scientific/Education Planning Committee of ASRA's 14th Annual Pain Medicine Meeting. He is also Director of the Center for Pain Medicine and Associate Professor in the Department of Anesthesiology at the University of Vermont College of Medicine in Burlington. He formerly served as program director of the pain medicine fellowship at the University of Vermont. He received his Bachelor’s degree in Biochemistry from the University of California, San Diego and his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Chile School of Medicine. He completed residency training in anesthesiology in Chile and the United States and a fellowship in Pain Medicine in 2002. Dr. Pino combines academic medicine with a busy clinical practice. His research publications are in the areas of anesthesiology and pain medicine, in both English and Spanish. He has lectured at numerous national and international meetings on regional anesthesia and acute and chronic pain. His areas of interests include fluoroscopic- and ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia and interventional pain procedures, medical education, and practice management. He has authored and coauthored a number of textbooks, served as guest reviewer in several international journals, and served as guest editor for the journal Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. He serves in the Advisory Council to the Vermont Department of Health, the Vermont Society of Anesthesiology, the American Society of Anesthesiology, and the American Board of Anesthesiology. [back to top]

Jason Pope, MD, is President of Summit Pain Alliance in Santa Rosa, CA. He received his Bachelors Degree in Chemistry from Purdue University and his Medical Degree from the Indiana University School of Medicine. He completed his Residency in Anesthesiology at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, and a Fellowship in Pain Medicine at the Cleveland Clinic, where he served as Associate Staff. Dr. Pope was as a Fellow to the House of Representatives Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Health and the WV Pharmacy Board Advisory Panel of Controlled Substances and Opioid Prescribing. He is Secretary of the California Society of Interventional Pain Physicians. He is a Director at Large for the North American Neuromodulation Society and co-Chair of the Neuromodulation Special Interest Group for ASRA. [back to top]

David Provenzano, MD, is the President of Pain Diagnostics and Interventional Care. He received his undergraduate degree from Colgate University where he graduated Magna Cum Laude and became a Phi Beta Kappa member. He received his medical degree from the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. He completed a surgical internship at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital and a residency in anesthesiology at The Western Pennsylvania Hospital. He completed a Pain Management Fellowship at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center. He serves on the Board of Directors of ASRA. In addition, he serves on the Educational Track Subcommittee on Pain Medicine for the American Society of Anesthesiologists. He has extensive interests and expertise in the conservative treatment of pain originating from the cervical and lumbar spine, neuromodulation, and the use of ultrasound for interventional pain management procedures. [back to top]

Maunak Rana, MD, is the Director of Pain Management at Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center in Chicago. He completed medical school at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia. His surgery internship was at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation and his anesthesiology residency was at The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Rana completed a Pain Medicine Fellowship at McGaw Medical Center at Northwestern University in Chicago. Dr. Rana has lectured nationally and internationally on topics in anesthesiology and in interventional pain management. [back to top]

James Rathmell, MD, is currently Professor of Anaesthesia at Harvard Medical School and Chair and Chief of the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. He devotes his time to his clinical practice, research, and education. Dr. Rathmell’s research has included a mixture of investigator-initiated and industry-sponsored trials examining the effectiveness of new and emerging treatments for pain. He lectures widely internationally and has delivered hundreds of lectures to students, medical professionals, and members of the public. Dr. Rathmell currently serves as a Director of the American Board of Anesthesiology and an Executive Editor for Anesthesiology. He has published extensively, including the recent second edition of his Atlas of Image-Guided Intervention in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. [back to top]

Ellen W.K. Rosenquist, MD, completed her anesthesiology residency at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School and  her pain medicine fellowship at the University of Pennsylvania. She is board certified in anethesiology and pain medicine. She also completed training in medical acupuncture through the Helms Medical Institute and is certified in medical acupuncture. She is currently an assistant professor at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western University. She also serves as the section editor for the acute and chronic pain section for UpToDate. [back to top] 

Richard Rosenquist, MD, is the 2015 John J. Bonica Award recipient and lecturer. He is Chairman of the Pain Management Department at the Cleveland Clinic. He is a also Past-President of ASRA, serving from 2005-2007. He is currently a member of ASRA’s Finance Committee. He currently serves as Chair for the ASA Committee on Pain Medicine and is a member of the ASA Committee on Economics and ASA RUC Advisor. He currently serves as Chair of the American Board of Anesthesiology Pain Medicine Examination Committee and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Anesthesiology Residency Review Committee and Task Force on the Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Fellowship. Dr. Rosenquist has published 67 peer-reviewed publications, 18 book chapters, and 20 abstracts. He has given more than 440 presentations at local, national, and international meetings. [back to top]

John Rowlingson, MD, attended Allegheny College in Meadville, PA (known for Dad's dog food and Talon zippers) and then the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine (known for brutal winters). He interned at the Millard Fillmore Hospital and attended the University of Virginia (UVA) for his Anesthesiology residency in 1975. He had the unique opportunity to work with Dr. Harold Carron, a Founding Father of ASRA, as a resident and to do a year's fellowship in pain medicine. He benefited from abundant opportunities to work in acute and chronic pain, regional anesthesia and analgesia, and the operating room at UVA. He founded the Acute Pain Service at UVA in 1987 and directed the Pain Management Center and the pain fellowship at UVA. He was promoted to Tenured Professor, named for his esteemed colleague and officemate, Cosmo A. DiFazio (a Past President himself of ASRA). It has been his distinct pleasure to serve ASRA from the earliest days, as Dr. Carron told him he was going to help him with the programs! His first meeting was in 1978, and he’s hardly ever missed one since. He had the opportunity to serve on many committees within ASRA and served as President in the mid 1990s. He has been on the Editorial Board of Regional Anestheia and Pain Medicine for many years, as well as that of other journals. In 2007, he won the ASRA Distinguished Service Award and the John J. Bonica award. In 2015, he received the Gaston Labat Award. [back to top]

Constantine Sarantopoulos, MD, PhD, is a board-certified anesthesiologist and interventional pain medicine specialist, currently serving as pain fellowship program director and chief of the division of pain management at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Dr Sarantopoulos is a clinician and basic research scientist, and has several publications and research grants. His clinical research interests include studying the pathogenesis and treatments of ocular and oculofacial pain conditions, and his basic research focuses in the role peripheral nerve ion channels (KATP) in neuropathic pain. [back to top]

Hariharan Shankar, MBBS, is Board certified in Anesthesiology and Pain medicine. He is the Director for the Pain Medicine fellowship program at the Medical College of Wisconsin and the Director of the Pain clinic at the Zablocki VA Medical Center in Milwaukee. He has received many "Teacher of the Year" awards, is one of the pioneers in the use of ultrasound imaging, and lectures nationally and internationally. He has to his credit many abstracts, book chapters, review articles, and peer-reviewed publications. [back to top]

Sanford Silverman, MD, is in private practice as the medical director and CEO of Comprehensive Pain Medicine in Pompano Beach, FL. He is board certified in anesthesiology with added qualifications in pain management from the American Board of Anesthesiology and a Diplomate in Pain Medicine from the American Board of Pain Medicine. Dr. Silverman is also a Diplomate in Addiction Medicine from the American Board of Addiction Medicine. He is the president of the Broward County Medical Association, immediate past-president of the Florida Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (FSIPP). [back to top]

Eliezer Soto, MD, graduated from the School of Medicine at University of Puerto Rico. He completed his residency in Internal Medicine at Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, MA. Subsequently, he completed fellowships in Palliative Care at the NIH in Bethesda, MD and in Interventional Pain Medicine at the Beth Israel Medical Center (BIMC) in New York City. Dr. Soto worked as an attending at BIMC and as an Assistant Professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Dr. Soto relocated to Florida and joined Anesthesia Pain Care Consultants. He maintains pain board certifications with the WIP, ABPM and ABPMR. [back to top]

Dmitri Souzdalnitski, MD, PhD, earned his medical degree in 1987 and Doctor of Science degree in 2000. He graduated from the anesthesiology residency program at Yale University School of Medicine in Connecticut; from the internal medicine residency at Good Samaritan Hospital of Maryland, which is affiliated with Johns Hopkins University; and from the pain medicine program at Cleveland Clinic. He served as a medical director of the Pain Medicine Center at South Pointe Hospital at the Cleveland Clinic. He has authored numerous publications related to use of ultrasonography in pain management. He serves as a Clinical Professor at Ohio University, a Faculty and a Board Director at national physician symposia. [back to top]

Brett Stacey, MD, grew up in Colorado and graduated Magna Cum Laude from The Colorado College with a degree in Political Science. He received his medical degree from University of Michigan. Following his anesthesiology residency and pain training at the University of Pittsburgh, he joined the faculty at the University of Pittsburgh and eventually became medical director of the Pain Evaluation and Treatment Institute. In 1996 he returned to the West, taking a position as the Medical Director of the Comprehensive Pain Center at Oregon Health & Science University where he was Professor of Anesthesiology & Peri-Operative Medicine and Division Chief of Pain Medicine. He recently relocated to Seattle, the birthplace of pain medicine as a specialty, to head the University of Washington’s Center for Pain Relief. The majority of his clinical, research, and educational efforts are devoted to treating patients with pain. He served on the board of directors of the American Board of Pain Medicine from 2000 to 2003. He has more than 50 publications and several ongoing research projects. He is committed to the field of pain medicine and to the education of others in the comprehensive treatment of patients with pain. [back to top]

Wyndam Strodtbeck, MD, is a faculty member in anesthesiology and pain medicine who enjoys working with residents and fellows to develop their skills in the critical evaluation of patients with complex acute, chronic, or cancer pain problems. Dr. Strodtbeck says "It is very rewarding to see patients benefit from improved quality of life and reduced pain while these trainees develop their skills in interventional pain medicine under close supervision." [back to top]


Santhanam Suresh, MD, is Chair of the Department of Anesthesiology and Director of the Pain Management Team at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago. He is an Arthur C. King Professor of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Dr. Suresh received his medical degree from the University of Madras in India. He completed his residency in pediatrics at Cook Country Hospital in Chicago, his residency in anesthesiology at Loyola University Medical School in Chicago, and his fellowship in pediatric anesthesiology at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago. His major area of research is in postoperative pain control and management of chronic pain in children and adolescents. He is internationally recognized for his innovations in the use of nerve blocks for postoperative pain control in infants and children. [back to top]

Ennio Tasciotti, PhD, laid the groundwork for two nanotechnology platforms and developed multifunctional biomaterials that provide immediate mechanical stabilization to bone fractures and promote bone tissue regeneration. He serves as Co-Chair of the Department of Nanomedicine, Director of the Center for Biomimetic Medicine, and Scientific Director of the Surgical Advanced Technology Lab at the Houston Methodist Research Institute. There, Dr. Tasciotti directs a research operation in the development of innovative nanotechnology platforms and biomaterials for drug delivery and regenerative medicine. [back to top]

Ricardo Vallejo, MD, PhD, is the Director of Research at Millennium Pain Center and an adjunct professor at Illinois State University and Wesleyan University. He earned his MD from Columbia University and his PhD in Immunology at Complutense University in Madrid, Spain. He also has a Pain Medicine degree from Harvard. He was chief resident in Anesthesiology at the University of Miami. He is ABA board certified in Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine. He is the Chief Editor of Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management, Associate Editor of Pain Practice,  and a member of the Editorial boards of Clinical Journal of Pain, Pain Physicians, Journal of Opioid Management, and Revista Mexicana de Anestesiologia. Dr. Vallejo serves on the Examination board for the World Institute of Pain and the American Board of Interventional Pain Physicians. He has published extensively and is an international speaker. [back to top]

Kevin Vincent, MD, PhD, FACSM, CAQSM, is the Peter Indelicato Endowed Professor of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine and the Division Chief of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the University of Florida (UF). He is the Director of the UF Running Medicine Clinic and the Medical Director of the UF Sports Performance Center. He is also a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and is Board Certified in Sports Medicine. Dr. Vincent’s research is funded by the National Institutes of Health and has more than 90 peer reviewed publications. [back to top]

Eugene Viscusi, MD, is Professor of Anesthesiology and Director of Acute Pain Management in the Department of Anesthesiology at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia, PA. He received his medical degree from Jefferson Medical College and completed an anesthesiology residency at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Dr. Viscusi developed a novel, nurse-driven model for acute pain management with specially trained nurses in the early 1990s that has served as a model for healthcare delivery. Dr. Viscusi has lectured extensively and contributing more than 75 peer-reviewed articles in journals including JAMA, Anesthesiology, Anesthesia & Analgesia, and Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. He currently serves on the editorial board of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the Clinical Journal of Pain, and the American Journal of Orthopedics. Dr. Viscusi has served on the ASRA Board of Directors since 2011, currently serving as Treasurer. Dr. Viscusi is also an avid musician, is a specialist in early music, and performed and conducted in the Philadelphia area until the late 1990s. [back to top]

Kevin Vorenkamp, MD, serves as the director of the Pain Medicine Fellowship at Virginia Mason Medical Center in Seattle, WA. Dr. Vorenkamp is active with ASRA and ASA and will be the program chair for the ASRA 2017 pain medicine meeting. He was elected to the American Medical Association's Current Procedural Terminology editorial panel beginning May 2015. His major areas of interest involve interventional pain treatments targeting facial pain, cervicogenic headache, and sacroiliac joint pain as well as issues related to pain medicine coding, compliance, and practice management. [back to top]

Bruce Vrooman, MD, MS, practices pain medicine and anesthesiology at Cleveland Clinic. He completed his anesthesiology residency at Boston University Medical Center and his pain medicine fellowship at Cleveland Clinic. He has a special interest in the use of ultrasound in performing interventional pain procedures and neuromodulation for neuropathic pain conditions. He is actively involved in teaching at the Cleveland Clinic pain medicine fellowship and a variety of research projects. [back to top]

Brian Wainger, MD, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and Neurology at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and an attending physician at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). He received his undergraduate degree from Princeton and his MD and PhD from Columbia. He completed his neurology residency and interventional pain fellowship at MGH, and he did his research fellowship with Clifford Woolf while completing the Masters Program in Translational Investigation at HMS. He is a Principal Investigator at MGH, where his research focuses on sensory and motor neuron diseases using stem cell technology. [back to top]

Mark Wallace, MD, is the Chief of the Division of Pain Medicine in the Department of Anesthesiology and Director of the Division of Clinical Research in the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Clinical and Translational Institute. He is subinvestigator for the National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award which supports the Clinical Translational Research Institute. Dr. Wallace is Associate Editor for the Clinical Journal of Pain, chair of the UCSD Institutional Review Board, and a member of the American Pain Society Board of Directors. Dr. Wallace has authored and co-authored more than 230 articles, abstracts, books, and book chapters concerning pain research and management. [back to top]

Daniel Warren, MD,  is an academic faculty member for the Department of Anesthesiology at Virginia Mason Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, Dr. Warren participates in both perioperative care of patients in the OR, as well as on the ward in postoperative recovery through our Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Service. Additionally, he is the program director for the Pain Medicine Fellowship and participates in consultative and interventional care for patients with chronic and cancer pain. As a past Program Chair for the ASRA Pain Medicine meeting, and member of the Committee on Continuing Medical Education, Dr. Warren remains committed to the mission of ASRA and the educational events provided to the community. [back to top]

Joshua Wellington, MD, is Assistant Professor of Clinical Anesthesia and Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R) at Indiana University School of Medicine. He is Medical Director of the Indiana University Pain Medicine Center, where he is a member of a group of specialists who combine teaching, clinical research, and patient care to deliver advanced medical treatment at the Indiana University Medical Center in Indianapolis.  Board-certified in Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and Pain Medicine, he has lectured extensively on topics related to pain, rehabilitation, and spasticity. [back to top]

Jijun Xu, MD, PhD, is a physician-scientist focusing on investigation and management of acute and chronic pain. Following an anesthesiology residency and pain medicine fellowship training at the Cleveland Clinic, he has been a faculty member at the Department of Pain Management, Anesthesiology Institute at the Clinic. He received his PhD in Neuroscience/Genes & Development at the University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (GSBS) at Houston. His current major research interests include neuroinflammation and neuro-immune interactions in chronic pain. [back to top]

Tony Yaksh, PhD, obtained his PhD from Purdue University in 1971. He was at Mayo Clinic in Neurosurgery (1977-1988) and joined the University of California, San Diego in 1988 as Professor and Vice Chairman for Research in Anesthesiology and Professor of Pharmacology.   The focus of his research has been in the physiology and pharmacology of pain processing. He is an expert on issues related to spinal drug kinetics and the evaluation of the safety of spinally delivered agents. He has published more than 770 papers, edited 6 texts, mentored 100+ postdocs and students, and has been funded consistently by the National Institutes of Health since 1977. He is twice a Javitz award recipient. [back to top]

Jason Zaremski, MD, is an Assistant Professor in the Divisions of PM&R and Sports Medicine in the Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation at the University of Florida. He completed his medical degree and residency training in PM&R at Tufts University in Boston and his Primary Care Sports Medicine Fellowship Training at the Geisinger Medical Center in Pennsylvania. He is currently the Co-Medical Director of the Adolescent and High School Athlete Outreach Program at the University of Florida. He has published and presented nationally and internationally on concussions, shoulder dislocations, and overuse throwing injuries. [back to top]