Practice Advisory on Controversial Topics in Pediatric Regional Anesthesia
From Ivani G, Suresh S, Ecoffey C, et al. The European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy and the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine joint committee practice advisory on controversial topics in pediatric regional anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2015;40(5):526-32. doi: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000280
Background and Objectives Some topics in the clinical management of regional anesthesia in children remain controversial. To evaluate and come to a consensus regarding some of these topics, The European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy (ESRA) and the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) developed a joint committee practice advisory on pediatric regional anesthesia (PRA).
Methods Representatives from both ASRA and ESRA comprised the joint committee practice advisory on PRA. Evidence-based recommendations were based on a systematic search of the literature. In cases where no literature was available, expert opinion was elicited. Experts selected controversial topics in PRA.
Results The performance of PRA under general anesthesia or deep sedation is associated with acceptable safety and should be viewed as the standard of care (Evidence B2 and Evidence B3). Because of the difficulty interpreting a negative test dose, the use of test dosing should remain discretionary (Evidence B4). The use of either air–loss of resistance or saline–loss of resistance techniques is supported by expert opinion, but the literature supporting one technique over the other is sparse and controversial; when used appropriately, each technique may be safely used in children. There are no current evidence-based data that the use of RA increases the risk for acute compartment syndrome or delays its diagnosis in children.
Conclusions High-level evidence is not yet available for the topics evaluated, and most recommendations are based on Evidence B studies. The ESRA/ASRA recommendations intend to provide guidance for the safe practice of regional anesthesia in children.